## maximum consecutive subsum of all sub-intervals

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tryit1
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### maximum consecutive subsum of all sub-intervals

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``````
a1,a2,a3,..an are real numbers,n <= 10^6
s(k) = sum(ak) i=1 to k (cummulative sum until k)

Define f(m,n) = s(n) - s(m) + n - m
If we have 2 bounds [A,B],  f(A,B) = maximize over f(i,j) with  A<=i<=j<=B
What is the datastructure to solve this and how do we go about solving this ?

or maximum consecutive subsum of all sub-intervals in a interval.
``````
Last edited by tryit1 on Sun Nov 23, 2008 12:09 am, edited 1 time in total.

mf
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### Re: maximum consecutive subsum of all sub-intervals

If that's not your own problem, care to give a link to a place where you've got it from?
(And please don't use [ code] tags for things that are not code, it's hard to read)
a1,a2,a3,..an are real numbers,n <= 10^6
s(k) = sum(ak) i=1 to k (cummulative sum until k)

Define f(m,n) = s(n) - s(m) + n - m
First, let's get rid of that ...+n-m: increment every a_k by 1. Then, what you want to find is: max_{A <= i <= j <= B-1} (a + a[i+1] + ... + a[j]). This query can be answered in O(log n) time with segment trees.

To do that, you would have to keep additional information in each tree's node: sum of elements in its subinterval [u, v], answer to the query with A=u, B=v, answer to the query A=i=u, B=v, and answer to the query A=u, B=j=v. That should be enough to answer queries with arbitrary A and B.

tryit1
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Posts: 119
Joined: Sun Aug 24, 2008 9:09 pm

### Re: maximum consecutive subsum of all sub-intervals

mf wrote:If that's not your own problem, care to give a link to a place where you've got it from?

http://acmicpc-live-archive.uva.es/nuev ... php?p=3760

. Then, what you want to find is: max_{A <= i <= j <= B-1} (a + a[i+1] + ... + a[j]). This query can be answered in O(log n) time with segment trees.

To do that, you would have to keep additional information in each tree's node: sum of elements in its subinterval [u, v], answer to the query with A=u, B=v, answer to the query A=i=u, B=v, and answer to the query A=u, B=j=v. That should be enough to answer queries with arbitrary A and B.

i don't get it quite. Can you elaborate a bit ? how you store the information in a node. If you have made any posts on this somewhere, can you give me the link.

mf
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### Re: maximum consecutive subsum of all sub-intervals

Ok, here's my implementation of the data structure:

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``````#include <cstdio>
#include <cassert>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;
#define MAXN (1<<12)
int max3(int a, int b, int c) { return max(a, max(b, c)); }

int array[MAXN], N;  // the input

// The segment tree is stored in this array using heap-like numbering:
// The root is node[1], and children of node[i] are node[2*i] and node[2*i+1].
// Each node has an associated interval [u, v] of array's indices. The left and
// right children of a node cover intervals [u, c] and [c+1, v], where c=(u+v) div 2.
// The root's interval is [0, N-1]. The numbers u and v for space efficiency
// are not explicitly stored, but passed as functions' arguments where needed.
//
// The four values in each node are defined as:
// node[i][0] = sum_{u<=k<=v} a[k]
// node[i][1] = max(0, max_{u<=i<=v} sum_{i<=k<=v} a[k])
// node[i][2] = max(0, max_{u<=j<=v} sum_{u<=k<=j} a[k])
// node[i][3] = max(0, max_{u<=i<=j<=v} sum_{i<=k<=j} a[k])
// (The max(0, ...) thing merely allows empty sums.)
int node[2*MAXN][4];  // Note: MAXN here must be a power of 2

void build(int root, int u, int v) {
if (u == v) {  // leaf
node[root][0] = array[u];
node[root][1] = node[root][2] = node[root][3] = max(0, array[u]);
} else {
int c = (u+v)/2, L = 2*root, R = 2*root+1;
build(L, u, c);
build(R, c+1, v);

// Try to carefully digest these relations. The function query() below
// basically has to mirror them in a lot more complicated way.
node[root][0] = node[L][0] + node[R][0];
node[root][1] = max(node[R][1], node[R][0] + node[L][1]);
node[root][2] = max(node[L][2], node[L][0] + node[R][2]);
node[root][3] = max3(node[L][3], node[R][3], node[L][1] + node[R][2]);
}
}

static int query(int root, int ru, int rv, int qu, int qv, int kind) {
// [ru, rv] = interval of node root
// [qu, qv] = the query interval.
// kind = which query to perform
// See description of node[i][kind], substitute qu and qv instead of u and v.

qu = max(qu, ru);
qv = min(qv, rv);
if (qu > qv) return 0;  // empty

int rc = (ru+rv)/2, L = 2*root, R = 2*root+1;

if (qu == ru && qv == rv) {
// [qu, qv] is exactly the node's interval (this also covers leaf cases)
// we have a precomputed answer right away.
return node[root][kind];

// else we have to divide and conquer... And thanks to a set of
// precomputed answers the whole thing will run in O(log N) time.
} else if (kind == 0) {
// sum query
return query(L,ru,rc, qu,qv, 0) + query(R,rc+1,rv, qu,qv, 0);
} else if (kind == 1) {
return max(
query(R,rc+1,rv, qu,qv, 1),
query(R,rc+1,rv, qu,qv, 0) + query(L,ru,rc, qu,qv, 1));
} else if (kind == 2) {
return max(
query(L,ru,rc, qu,qv, 2),
query(L,ru,rc, qu,qv, 0) + query(R,rc+1,rv, qu,qv, 2));
} else {  // kind == 3
return max3(
query(L,ru,rc, qu,qv, 3),
query(R,rc+1,rv, qu,qv, 3),
query(L,ru,rc, qu,qv, 1) + query(R,rc+1,rv, qu,qv, 2));
}
}

// Returns max(0, max_{low <= i <= j <= high} sum_{i <= k <= j} array[k])
int query_fast(int low, int high) {
assert(0 <= low && low <= high && high < N);
return query(1, 0, N-1, low, high, 3);
}

int query_naive(int low, int high) {
int res = 0;
for (int u = low; u <= high; u++) {
int sum = 0;
for (int v = u; v <= high; v++) {
sum += array[v];
res = max(res, sum);
}
}
return res;
}

// Sample usage and unittest:
int main() {
// prepare input
srand(53387);
N = MAXN;
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) array[i] = rand() % 1000 - 500;

// build the tree
build(1, 0, N-1);

for (int count = 0; count < 1000; count++) {
int a = rand() % N, b = rand() % N;
if (a > b) swap(a, b);
int w = query_fast(a, b), z = query_naive(a, b);
printf("a=%d b=%d naive=%d fast=%d\n", a, b, z, w);
assert(z == w);
}
printf("PASSED\n");
}``````
I hope it works.

tryit1
Experienced poster
Posts: 119
Joined: Sun Aug 24, 2008 9:09 pm

### Re: maximum consecutive subsum of all sub-intervals

i'm think i understood what you are doing. Storing the prefix sums and suffix sums and manipulating them.

Can this also support dynamic operations , i mean insert before beginning or insert after last or in middle. My answer is no we have compute the whole tree because the suffix sums / prefix sums change and it could cause a change in the interval. Or do i miss the obvious ?
How would you do the same with dynamic modifcations (insertions or removals)

One more thing , Do you have this standard stuff somewhere archived ? It would be better to read and understand them rather than bothering you. Suggestions please

mf
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### Re: maximum consecutive subsum of all sub-intervals

It's easy to make the above code to modify the value of any single element a[k] in O(log n): take the build() procedure and make it only modify the path from the root to the leaf representing a[k].

But if you want to insert/remove arbitrary elements, you'll need to modify some balanced tree data structure (e.g. treap, AVL tree, red-black tree), so that's going to be complicated.
One more thing , Do you have this standard stuff somewhere archived ?
Augmenting trees with additional information - chapter 14 in CLRS.
i'm think i understood what you are doing. Storing the prefix sums and suffix sums and manipulating them.
Well, it's not exactly about prefix and suffix sums. And not only about sums.
Each tree's node represents some segment of the array (not necessarily prefix or suffix), and it keeps 4 values about it, sum of elements is only one of them.